Entrepreneurial Intentions in Crisis: Shaping Through the Triad of Influence - Government, Education, and Environment





entrepreneurship, business environment, government support, intention, university students, post-pandemic


Purpose: The COVID-19 outbreak’s effect on the world has been unparalleled, its consequences generated unpredictable behavioral changes in individuals’ perceptions, which can affect entrepreneurial activities. This paper aims to analyze the motivating factors, challenges, and youths' perspectives regarding factors that affect their intention to engage in entrepreneurial activities in Lebanon, a country dealing with one of the worst global economic and financial crises in the middle of the nineteenth century.


Design/methodology/approach: Data were gathered from a valid sample of 992 university students as part of a quantitative approach to data collection that covered seven different districts in Lebanon. In order to analyze the contextual elements in connection to students’ intention to engage in entrepreneurial activity using planned behavior theory, a structural equation modelling was used.


Findings: The results provide evidence that three experiences—attitude towards entrepreneurship, perceived behavioral control, and social norms— have a direct impact on the likelihood of future entrepreneurial initiatives. Nevertheless, the desire of students to be entrepreneur was not directly impacted by the support provided from the university, government and business environment.


Theoretical and Practical Implications: Theoretical and practical implications can be made from this study’s results. Theoretically this study adds to the literature by examining different factors that may have an impact on enterpreneurial intention of university students during time of crisis. Practically, results found provide suggestions to policymakers to reassess the current policies and programs in order to encourage positive intentions towards entrepreneurship among Lebanese university students.


Originality/ value: The examination of factors affecting entrepreneurial intention of university students in Lebanon is a first of its kind, which could be implied for further investigation.


Abdullah Alshammari, S., Rehman, A. U., Abdullah Alreshoodi, S., & Abdul Rab, M. (2023). How entrepreneurial competencies influence the leadership style: A study of Saudi female entrepreneurs. Cogent Business & Management, 10(2).https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2023.2202025.

Aga, M. K. (2023). The mediating role of perceived behavioral control in the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Ethiopia. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 12(1), 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-023-00297-w.

Ahn, K., & Winters, J. v. (2022). Does education enhance entrepreneurship? Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-022-00701-x

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T.

Al-Jubari, I. (2019). College Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention: Testing an Integrated Model of SDT and TPB. SAGE Open, 9(2), 215824401985346. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019853467.

Al-Mamary, Y. H. S., & Alraja, M. M. (2022). Understanding entrepreneurship intention and behavior in the light of TPB model from the digital entrepreneurship perspective. International Journal of Information Management Data Insights, 2(2), 100106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jjimei.2022.100106.

AL-Qadasi, N., & Gongyi, Z. (2020). Entrepreneurship in crisis situations: Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among University Students in Yemen. African Journal of Business Management, 14(7), 196–208. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM2020.9017.

Amofah, K., & Saladrigues, R. (2022). Impact of attitude towards entrepreneurship education and role models on entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 11(1), 36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-022-00197-5.

Amos, A., Oluseye, O., & Bosede, A. (2015). Influence of Contextual Factors on Entrepreneurial Intention of University Students: The Nigerian Experience. Journal of South African Business Research, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.5171/2015.750622.

Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei–Skillern, J. (2006). Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Same, Different, or Both? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00107.x.

Autio, E., H. Keeley, R., Klofsten, M., G. C. Parker, G., & Hay, M. (2001). Entrepreneurial Intent among Students in Scandinavia and in the USA. Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies, 2(2), 145–160. https://doi.org/10.1080/14632440110094632.

Awang, Z. (2015). A Handbook on SEM. 2nd edn. Malaysia.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02723327.

Barrios, G. E., Rodriguez, J. F. R., Plaza, A. V., Vélez Zapata, C. P., & Zuluaga, M. E. G. (2022). Entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Colombia: Exploration based on the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Education for Business, 97(3), 176–185. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2021.1918615.

Bedő, Z., Erdős, K., & Pittaway, L. (2020). University-centred entrepreneurial ecosystems in resource-constrained contexts. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 27(7), 1149–1166. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-02-2020-0060.

Bird, B. (1988). Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas: the case for intention. The Academy of Management Review, 13 (3), 442-453. https://doi.org/10.2307/258091

Bogatyreva, K., Shirokova, G., Wales, W. J., & Germain, R. (2022). Foreign motivation Managerial international exposure and international regional involvement effects on firms’ entrepreneurial orientation. European J. of International Management, 18(1), 52. https://doi.org/10.1504/EJIM.2022.123753.

Bouzakhem, N., Farmanesh, P., Zargar, P., Ramadan, M., Baydoun, H., Daouk, A., & Mouazen, A. (2023). Rebuilding the Workplace in the Post-Pandemic Age through Human Capital Development Programs: A Moderated Mediation Model. Administrative Sciences, 13(7), 164. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3387/13/7/164

Brihi, J., Takieddine, A. & Zmeter, M. (2019). Technical Assistance to Support Promotion of Social Dialogue in Lebanon. Ministry of Labour. Retrieved 20 December 2022 from: http://data.infopro.com.lb/file/Unemployment%20in%20Lebanon%20Findings%20and%20Recommendations%202019%20ECOSOC.pdf.

Bullough, A., Renko, M., & Myatt, T. (2014). Danger Zone Entrepreneurs: The Importance of Resilience and Self–Efficacy for Entrepreneurial Intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(3), 473–499. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12006.

Caliendo, M., Fossen, F., & Kritikos, A. S. (2014). Personality characteristics and the decisions to become and stay self-employed. Small Business Economics, 42, 787-814. Retrieved from: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/150914/1/diw_sp0369.pdf.

Calza, F., Cannavale, C., & Zohoorian Nadali, I. (2020). How do cultural values influence entrepreneurial behavior of nations? A behavioral reasoning approach. International Business Review, 29(5), 101725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2020.101725.

Carland, H., Carland, J. W., & Hoy, F. (2002). Who is an entrepreneur? Is a question worth asking. Entrepreneurship: Critical Perspectives on Business and Management, 178 (2), 47-67. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225878801200402

Çera, G., Ndoka, M., Dika, I., & Çera, E. (2022). Examining the Impact of COVID-19 on Entrepreneurial Intention through a Stimulus–Organism–Response Perspective. Administrative Sciences, 12(4), 184. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci12040184

Çera, G., Ndoka, M., Dika, I., & Çera, E. (2022). Examining the Impact of COVID-19 on Entrepreneurial Intention through a Stimulus–Organism–Response Perspective. Administrative Sciences, 12(4), 184. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci12040184.

Chang, J., & Rieple, A. (2013). Assessing students’ entrepreneurial skills development in live projects. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(1), 225–241. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626001311298501.

Chang, J., & Rieple, A. (2013). Assessing students’ entrepreneurial skills development in live projects. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(1), 225–241. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626001311298501.

Chbeir, R. (2020). Lebanese Unemployment 2020, BlomInvest Bank. Retrieved 1 January 2023 from: https://blog.blominvestbank.com/33572/information-international-sal-released-estimates-of-sectoral-lebanese-unemployment-in-2020/.

Cui, J., Sun, J., & Bell, R. (2021). The impact of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial mindset of college students in China: The mediating role of inspiration and the role of educational attributes. The International Journal of Management Education, 19(1), 100296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2019.04.001.

Daily Star. (2018). Jobless rate at 46 pct, president warns. Retrieved 7 October 2022 from: https://www.dailystar.com.lb/Business/Local/2018/Mar-30/443613-jobless-rate-at-46-pct-president-warns.ashx.

Denanyoh, R., Adjei, K. & Effah Nyamekye, G. (2015) Factors that impact entrepreneurial intention of Tertiary Students in Ghana. International Journal of Business and Social Research, 5(3),19-29.

Doanh, D. C. (2021). The role of contextual factors on predicting entrepreneurial intention among Vietnamese students. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 9(1), 169–188. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2021.090111.

Drucker, P. (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship Practice and Principles. Harper &Row, Publishers, Inc.

Duong, C. D., Wach, K., Vu, N. X., Ha, S. T., & Nguyen, B. N. (2022). Entrepreneurial education, government policies and programmes, and entrepreneurial behaviour: A serial moderated mediation model. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 10(4), 37–54. https://doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2022.100403.

Elnadi, M., & Gheith, M. H. (2021). Entrepreneurial ecosystem, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intention in higher education: Evidence from Saudi Arabia. The International Journal of Management Education, 19(1), 100458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2021.100458.

European Commission. (2011). Entrepreneurship Education: Enabling Teachers as a Critical Success Factor “A Report on Teacher Education and Training to Prepare Teachers for the Challenge of Entrepreneurship Education”. Final Report. Bruxelles: Entrepreneurship Unit. Retrieved 12 August 2022 from: https://www.tesguide.eu/policy-strategy/enabling-teachers-as-a-critical-success-factor.htm.

European Commission. (2013). Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan Reigniting the entrepreneurial spirit in Europe. Retrieved 21 March 2023 from: http://eurlex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52012DC0795&from=EN.

Fallatah, M. I., & Ayed, T. L. (2023). “Entrepreneurizing” College Programs to Increase Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Mediation Framework. Administrative Sciences, 13(2), 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci13020050.

Fayolle, A., Gailly, B., & Lassas‐Clerc, N. (2006). Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programmes: a new methodology. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30 (9), 701-720. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090590610715022.

Fini, R., Grimaldi, R., Marzocchi, G. L., & Sobrero, M. (2012). The Determinants of Corporate Entrepreneurial Intention within Small and Newly Established Firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(2), 387–414. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00411.x.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312.

Furman, D., Shchokin, R., Kubitskyi, S., Chaplinskyi, V., & Strochenko, N. (2023). Motivation and Incentives for Employees of Domestic Enterprises. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(3), e815-e815. https://doi.org/10.55908/sdgs.v11i3.815

Gautman, M. and Singh, S. (2015). Entrepreneurship Education: Concept, Characteristics and Implications for Teacher Education. International Journal of Education, 5 (1), 21-35.

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. (2018). Lebanon National Report 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2023 from: http://www.databank.com.lb/docs/Global%20Entrepreneurship%20Monitor-Lebanon%20National%20Report%202018%20UK%20Lebanon%20Tech%20Hub.pdf.

Guzairy, M., Mohamad, N., & Yunus, A. R. (2018). Enhancing Student’s Understanding in Entrepreneurship Through Business Plan Simulation. MATEC Web of Conferences, 150, 05091. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815005091.

Hair J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. and Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective. 7th edn. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River.

ILO (2022). Lebanon Follow-up Labour Force Survey – January 2022. Retrieved 11 June 2023 from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/publication/wcms_844837.pdf.

Joensuu-Salo, S., Viljamaa, A., & Varamäki, E. (2022). Sustainable Entrepreneurs of the Future: The Interplay between Educational Context, Sustainable Entrepreneurship Competence, and Entrepreneurial Intentions. Administrative Sciences, 12(1), 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci12010023.

Karimi, S., Biemans, H. J. A., Lans, T., Chizari, M., & Mulder, M. (2016). The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education: A Study of Iranian Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions and Opportunity Identification. Journal of Small Business Management, 54(1), 187–209. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12137.

Kautonen, T., van Gelderen, M., & Fink, M. (2015). Robustness of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Entrepreneurial Intentions and Actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(3), 655–674. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12056.

Kline, R B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling. 2nd ed, New York, The Guilford Press.

Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5–6), 411–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00033-0.

Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. (2009). Development and Cross–Cultural Application of a Specific Instrument to Measure Entrepreneurial Intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593–617. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00318.x.

Lu, G., Song, Y., & Pan, B. (2021). How University Entrepreneurship Support Affects College Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions: An Empirical Analysis from China. Sustainability, 13(6), 3224. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063224.

Lungu, A. E., Bogoslov, I. A., Stoica, E. A., & Georgescu, M. R. (2021). From Decision to Survival—Shifting the Paradigm in Entrepreneurship during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability, 13(14), 7674. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147674.

Luthje, C., & Franke, N. (2003). the “making” of an entrepreneur: testing a model of entrepreneurial intent among engineering students at MIT. R and D Management, 33(2), 135–147. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9310.00288.

Madaan, G., Kaur, M., Gowda, K. R., Gujrati, R., & Uygun, H. (2023). Business Responses Towards Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development Goals During Covid-19 Pandemic. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(1), e0309-e0309. https://doi.org/10.37497/sdgs.v11i1.309

Maaloui, A., Perez, C., Bertrand, G., Razgallah, M., & Germon, R. (n.d.). “Cruel intention” or “entrepreneurial intention”: what did you expect? An overview of research on entrepreneurial intention—an interactive perspective. In A Research Agenda for Entrepreneurial Cognition and Intention, 7–46. Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781784716813.00006.

Mei, H., Ma, Z., Jiao, S., Chen, X., Lv, X., & Zhan, Z. (2017). The Sustainable Personality in Entrepreneurship: The Relationship between Big Six Personality, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, and Entrepreneurial Intention in the Chinese Context. Sustainability, 9(9), 1649. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091649.

Mendelek, M. (2022). The Lebanese Trend of Emigration: A New Peak Since 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2023 from: https://soas.lau.edu.lb/news/2022/01/the-lebanese-trend-of-emigration-a-new-peak-since-2019.php.

Mokaya, S. O., Namusonge, M., & Sikalieh, D. (2012). The Concept of Entrepreneurship; in pursuit of a Universally Acceptable Definition. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 1 (6), pp. 128-135.

Mueller, S. L., & Thomas, A. S. (2001). Culture and entrepreneurial potential. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(1), 51–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(99)00039-7.

Otchengco Jr., A. M., & Akiate, Y. W. D. (2021). Entrepreneurial intentions on perceived behavioral control and personal attitude: moderated by structural support. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 15(1), 14–25. https://doi.org/10.1108/APJIE-08-2020-0124.

Ramadan, M., Bou Zakhem, N., Baydoun, H., Daouk, A., Youssef, S., El Fawal, A., Elia, J., et al. (2023). Toward Digital Transformation and Business Model Innovation: The Nexus between Leadership, Organizational Agility, and Knowledge Transfer. Administrative Sciences, 13(8), 185. MDPI AG. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/admsci13080185

Rivis, A., & Sheeran, P. (2003). Descriptive norms as an additional predictor in the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analysis. Current Psychology, 22(3), 218–233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-003-1018-2.

Rueda Barrios, G. E., Rodriguez, J. F. R., Plaza, A. V., Vélez Zapata, C. P., & Zuluaga, M. E. G. (2022). Entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Colombia: Exploration based on the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Education for Business, 97(3), 176–185. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2021.1918615.

Rueda, S., Moriano, J. A., & Liñán, F. (2015.). Validating a theory of planned behavior questionnaire to measure entrepreneurial intentions. In Developing, Shaping and Growing Entrepreneurship, 60–78. Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781784713584.00010.

Shook, C. (2003). Venture Creation and the Enterprising Individual: A Review and Synthesis. Journal of Management, 29(3), 379–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2063(03)00016-3.

Skalicka, M., Zinecker, M., Balcerzak, A. P., & Pietrzak, M. B. (2023). Business angels and early stage decision making criteria: empirical evidence from an emerging market. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 36(1), 25–50. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2022.2063920.

Stephan, W. G., Lausanne Renfro, C., Esses, V. M., White Stephan, C., & Martin, T. (2005). The effects of feeling threatened on attitudes toward immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.04.011.

Storey, D. (2017). Six Steps to Heaven: Evaluating the Impact of Public Policies to Support Small Businesses in Developed Economies. In The Blackwell Handbook Of Entrepreneurship (pp. 176–193). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405164214.ch9.

Suryadi, N., & Anggraeni, R. (2023). Can Entrepreneurship Education and Personality Encourage Students to Become Entrepreneurs? Journal of The Community Development in Asia, 6(2), 35–54. https://doi.org/10.32535/jcda.v6i2.2276.

Sutter, C., Bruton, G. D., & Chen, J. (2019). Entrepreneurship as a solution to extreme poverty: A review and future research directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 34(1), 197–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2018.06.003.

Thomassen, M. L., Williams Middleton, K., Ramsgaard, M. B., Neergaard, H., & Warren, L. (2019). Conceptualizing context in entrepreneurship education: a literature review. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 26(5), 863–886. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-04-2018-0258.

Thompson, E. R. (2009), “Individual entrepreneurial intent: Construct clarification and development of an internationally reliable metric”, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 669-694. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00321.

Transparency International. (2022). Corruption Perception Index. Retrieved 5 June 2023 from: https://www.transparency.org/en/countries/lebanon.

Turker, D., & Sonmez Selcuk, S. (2009). Which factors affect entrepreneurial intention of university students? Journal of European Industrial Training, 33(2), 142–159. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090590910939049.

Uddin, Md. R., & Bose, T. K. (2012). Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention of Business Students in Bangladesh. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(24), 128-137. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n24p128.

Urban, B. (2010). A gender perspective on career preferences and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Journal of Human Resource Management, 8 (1), 1 – 8. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.293.

USAID (2002). Literacy Lebanon. Retrieved 1 March 2023 from: https://idea.usaid.gov/cd/lebanon/education#tab-literacy.

Usman, M. A., & Sun, X. (2022). Global Pandemic and Entrepreneurial Intention: How Adversity Leads To Entrepreneurship. SAGE Open, 12(3), 215824402211234. https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440221123421.

Usman, M. A., & Sun, X. (2022). Global Pandemic and Entrepreneurial Intention: How Adversity Leads To Entrepreneurship. SAGE Open, 12(3), 215824402211234. https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440221123421.

Utomo, H. J. N., Irwantoro, I., Wasesa, S., Purwati, T., Sembiring, R., & Purwanto, A. (2023). Investigating The Role of Innovative Work Behavior, Organizational Trust, Perceived Organizational Support: An Empirical Study on SMEs Performance. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(2), e417-e417. https://doi.org/10.55908/sdgs.v11i2.417

Virick, M., Basu, A., & Rogers, A. (2015). Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intention among Laid-Off Individuals: A Cognitive Appraisal Approach. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(2), 450–468. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12067.

Welter, F. (2011). Contextualizing Entrepreneurship—Conceptual Challenges and Ways Forward. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 165–184. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00427.x.

World Bank (2022a). Population total- Lebanon. Retrieved 17 July 2023 from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=LB.

World Bank (2022b). GDP growth (annual %)- Lebanon. Retrieved 17 July 2023 from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG?locations=LB.

World Bank. (2014). Lebanon: Developing an internet ecosystem to keep young talent at home. Retrieved 18 February 2023 from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/12/23/lebanon-developing-an-internet-ecosystem-to-keep-young-talent-at-home.

World Bank. (2016). Lebanon Economic Monitor a Geo- Economy of Risks and Reward. Retrieved 18 February 2023 from: http://documents.banquemondiale.org/curated/fr/652591468179100109/pdf/105995-WP-The-World-Bank-LEM-Spring-2016-PUBLIC-DISCLOSURE-DATE-JULY-1-low-res.pdf.

World Bank. (2019). Lebanon Electricity Transmission Project. Retrieved 1 February 2023 from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/235831562864951356/text/Concept-Project-Information-Document-PID-Lebanon-Electricity-Transmission-Project-P170769.txt.

World Bank. (2022). Doing Business- Economy Profile Lebanon. Retrieved 20 January 2023 from: https://www.doingbusiness.org/content/dam/doingBusiness/country/l/lebanon/LBN.pdf.

Worldwidebroadband Speed League (2022). Retrieved 17 January 2023 from: https://www.cable.co.uk/broadband/speed/worldwide-speed-league/#regions.

Yamane, Taro. (1973), Statistics: An Introductory Analysis. London: John Weather Hill, Inc.

Zakhem, N. B., Farmanesh, P., Zargar, P., & Kassar, A. (2022). Wellbeing during a pandemic: An empirical research examining autonomy, work-family conflict and informational support among SME employees. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 890265. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.890265/full

Zhao, Seibert, S. E., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2010). The Relationship of Personality to Entrepreneurial Intentions and Performance: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Management, 36(2), 381–404. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206309335187.




How to Cite

Youssef, S., Ramadan, M., Baydoun, H., Zakhem, N. B., Tahan, S., Diab, M. B., Daouk, A., & Yassine, D. (2023). Entrepreneurial Intentions in Crisis: Shaping Through the Triad of Influence - Government, Education, and Environment. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(6), e890. https://doi.org/10.55908/sdgs.v11i6.890

Most read articles by the same author(s)