Exploration and Analysis of Middle School Teachers' Classroom Questioning Methods from the Perspective of Dialogue Education





exploration, analysis, strategies, perspective


Aim: This study aimed to investigate and evaluate the questioning strategies used in the classroom by middle school instructors. "What is the impact of dialogue-based questioning methods on middle school students' learning outcomes?" was the research question for the study.


Methodology: A methodical search technique was used to find pertinent peer-reviewed papers written in English in order to meet the research objective. Key information regarding the different types of questioning techniques, impact on student engagement, improvement of critical thinking skills, student learning outcomes, teacher-student interaction, professional development, and teacher preparation was extracted from the studies that were chosen and synthesized.


Results and conclusions: Results indicated that dialogue-based questioning techniques, such as open-ended inquiries, incisive inquiries, and Socratic inquiries, are successful in encouraging fruitful discussion, student participation, and the development of critical thinking abilities.


Recommendations: Teachers should give priority to integrating different questioning strategies in order to promote discussion, stimulate active student participation, and improve critical thinking abilities.


Practical Implications: The use of dialogue-based questioning techniques to improve student engagement, critical thinking, and learning outcomes, supported by efficient professional development programs, is one practical use.


Afsyah, S. (2019). WhatsApp Application in English Language Teaching (ELT) Context: Media to Describe People. Utamax : Journal of Ultimate Research and Trends in Education, 1(1), 23–28. https://doi.org/10.31849/utamax.v1i1.2743

Alsaleh, N. J. (2020). Teaching Critical Thinking Skills: Literature Review. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 19(1).

Alshuraiaan, A. (2023). Exploring the Relationship between Teacher-student Interaction Patterns and Language Learning Outcomes in TESOL Classrooms. Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics.

Bellaera, L., Weinstein-Jones, Y., Ilie, S., & Baker, S. T. (2021). Critical thinking in practice: The priorities and practices of instructors teaching in higher education. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 41, 100856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100856

Chen, M. A., Hwang, G., & Chang, Y. (2019). A reflective thinking‐promoting approach to enhancing graduate students’ flipped learning engagement, participation behaviors, reflective thinking and project learning outcomes. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(5), 2288–2307. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12823

Chin, R., & Chin, R. (2019). CASE STUDY: ENGAGING IT STUDENTS WITH WORLD CAFÉ DISCUSSION AND KAHOOT! SUNWAY COLLEGE JOHOR BAHRU STUDENTS’ AND TEACHERS’ PERPECTIVES. http://eprints.sunway.edu.my/1052/1/5th%20Pre-U%20Conference%202019.pdf#page=114

Dinkins, C. S., & Cangelosi, P. R. (2019). Putting Socrates back in Socratic method: Theory‐based debriefing in the nursing classroom. Nursing Philosophy, 20(2), e12240. https://doi.org/10.1111/nup.12240

Dobson, J., & Dobson, T. (2021). Empowering student voice in a secondary school: Character Education through project-based learning with students as teachers. Teacher Development, 25(2), 103–119. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2020.1865442

Duckworth, C., Albano, T., Munroe, D., & Garver, M. (2019). “Students can change a school”: Understanding the role of youth leadership in building a school culture of peace. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 36(3), 235–249. https://doi.org/10.1002/crq.21245

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2020). From expectancy-value theory to situated expectancy-value theory: A developmental, social cognitive, and sociocultural perspective on motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101859. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101859

Flanigan, A. E., Ray, E., Titsworth, S., Hosek, A. M., & Kim, J. H. Y. (2021). Initiating and maintaining student-instructor rapport in face-to-face classes. Teaching in Higher Education, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2021.1918662

Gao, X. (Ed.). (2019). Second Handbook of English language teaching. Volume 2. Springer.

Gherheș, V., Șimon, S., & Para, I. (2021). Analysing Students’ Reasons for Keeping Their Webcams on or off during Online Classes. Sustainability, 13(6), 3203. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063203

Glăveanu, V. P. (2020). A Sociocultural Theory of Creativity: Bridging the Social, the Material, and the Psychological. Review of General Psychology, 24(4), 335–354. https://doi.org/10.1177/1089268020961763

González‐Howard, M., & McNeill, K. L. (2019). Teachers’ framing of argumentation goals: Working together to develop individual versus communal understanding. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 56(6), 821–844. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21530

Hennessy, S., Howe, C., Mercer, N., & Vrikki, M. (2020). Coding classroom dialogue: Methodological considerations for researchers. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 25, 100404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2020.100404

Hooshyar, D., Kori, K., Pedaste, M., & Bardone, E. (2019). The potential of open learner models to promote active thinking by enhancing self‐regulated learning in online higher education learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(5), 2365–2386. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12826

Hsu, F.-H., Lin, I.-H., Yeh, H.-C., & Chen, N.-S. (2022). Effect of Socratic Reflection Prompts via video-based learning system on elementary school students’ critical thinking skills. Computers & Education, 183, 104497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2022.104497

Iordanou, K., & Rapanta, C. (2021). “Argue With Me”: A Method for Developing Argument Skills. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 631203. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.631203

Isaeva, R., Eisenschmidt, E., Vanari, K., & Kumpas-Lenk, K. (2020). Students’ views on dialogue: Improving student engagement in the quality assurance process. Quality in Higher Education, 26(1), 80–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/13538322.2020.1729307

Johnson, C. E., Keating, J. L., & Molloy, E. K. (2020). Psychological safety in feedback: What does it look like and how can educators work with learners to foster it? Medical Education, 54(6), 559–570. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.14154

Kumar Shah, R. (2019). Effective Constructivist Teaching Learning in the Classroom. Shanlax International Journal of Education, 7(4), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.34293/education.v7i4.600

Lafrarchi, N. (2021). Intra- and Interreligious Dialogue in Flemish (Belgian) Secondary Education as a Tool to Prevent Radicalisation. Religions, 12(6), 434. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12060434

Lin, P., Van Brummelen, J., Lukin, G., Williams, R., & Breazeal, C. (2020). Zhorai: Designing a Conversational Agent for Children to Explore Machine Learning Concepts. Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 34(09), 13381–13388. https://doi.org/10.1609/aaai.v34i09.7061

Looman, N., de Graaf, J., Thoonen, B., van Asselt, D., de Groot, E., Kramer, A., Scherpbier, N., & Fluit, C. (2022). Designing the learning of intraprofessional collaboration among medical residents. Medical Education, 56(10), 1017–1031. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.14868

Ludvigsen, K., Ness, I. J., & Timmis, S. (2019). Writing on the wall: How the use of technology can open dialogical spaces in lectures. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 34, 100559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2019.02.007

Mallillin, L. L. D. (2021). TEACHER THEORY AND ADAPTABLE MODEL: AN APPLICATION TO TEACHING PROFESSION. European Journal of Education Studies, 8(12). https://doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v8i12.4044

Manalo, E. (Ed.). (2019). Deeper learning, dialogic learning, and critical thinking: Research-based strategies for the classroom (First). Routledge.

Mercer, N., Hennessy, S., & Warwick, P. (2019). Dialogue, thinking together and digital technology in the classroom: Some educational implications of a continuing line of inquiry. International Journal of Educational Research, 97, 187–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2017.08.007

Milistetd, M., Salles, W. das N., Backes, A. F., Mesquita, I., & Nascimento, J. V. do. (2019). Learner-centered teaching in a university-based coach education: First attempts through action research inquiry. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 14(3), 294–309. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954119842957

Prashanti, E., & Ramnarayan, K. (2020). Ten maxims for creating a safe learning environment. Advances in Physiology Education, 44(4), 550–553. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00085.2020

Ruffinelli, A., de la Hoz, S., & Álvarez, C. (2020). Practicum tutorials in initial teacher training: Conditions, strategies, and effects of reflective practice. Reflective Practice, 21(1), 54–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623943.2019.1708712

Salloum, S., & BouJaoude, S. (2019). The Use of Triadic Dialogue in the Science Classroom: A Teacher Negotiating Conceptual Learning with Teaching to the Test. Research in Science Education, 49(3), 829–857. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-017-9640-4

Schwan, A., Wold, C., Moon, A., Neville, A., & Outka, J. (2020). Mentor and New Teacher Self-Perceptions Regarding the Effectiveness of a Statewide Mentoring Program.

Sial, Z. A., Kausar, R., & Kanwal, H. (2021). Perception of University Teachers Regarding the Effects of Discussion Method on Students’ Achievement. Review of Education, Administration & LAW, 4(3), 719–727. https://doi.org/10.47067/real.v4i3.189

Steenbergen-Hu, S., Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Calvert, E. (2020). The Effectiveness of Current Interventions to Reverse the Underachievement of Gifted Students: Findings of a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Gifted Child Quarterly, 64(2), 132–165. https://doi.org/10.1177/0016986220908601

Supena, I., Darmuki, A., IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, Indonesia, [email protected], Hariyadi, A., & IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, Indonesia, [email protected]. (2021). The Influence of 4C (Constructive, Critical, Creativity, Collaborative) Learning Model on Students’ Learning Outcomes. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 873–892. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2021.14351a

Yang, Y., van Aalst, J., & Chan, C. K. K. (2020). Dynamics of Reflective Assessment and Knowledge Building for Academically Low-Achieving Students. American Educational Research Journal, 57(3), 1241–1289. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831219872444

Yousef, N. T., & Mahameed, M. I. (2022). Reading Yeats’s ‘A Prayer for My Daughter’ in Light of Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Learning. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 12(2), 241–247. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.1202.04




How to Cite

Yi, C., Nasri, N. B. M., & Jiao, J. (2023). Exploration and Analysis of Middle School Teachers’ Classroom Questioning Methods from the Perspective of Dialogue Education. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(6), e834. https://doi.org/10.55908/sdgs.v11i6.834