ex-offenders, terrorism, assimilation, social reintegration, counter violent terrorismo


Objective: This research aims to investigate and analyze the assimilation models of ex-offenders of terrorism and identify the factors that drive them to participate willingly in the process of social reintegration.


Theoretical Framework: Using the segmented assimilation theory developed by Porter and Zou, this study examines the movement of former convicts through various institutions and social and economic activities has led to their acceptance by society or if they need to follow a different trajectory.


Method: A qualitative descriptive ap proach, coupled with the phenomenological method, was employed to gain profound insights into the lived experience of 15 former convicts hailing from diverse districts and cities in Central Java, Indonesia. To collect the data, we conduct interviews individually and in group to gain extensive their trajectory experiences for peace.


Results and Discussion: The results of the study indicate that two trajectory models occur in society as a way of returning former terrorists to a peaceful path: (a) the independent model and (b) the institutional model. The independent model focuses on individual roles and initiatives in the ex-offender communicating with the community through family, friends, or community leaders and religious paths to gain the trust of the intended social community.


Research Implications: This study provides valuable insights into the mechanisms of social reintegration for ex-offenders of terrorism, highlighting the importance of both individual initiatives and institutional support in facilitating successful assimilation into society.


Originality/Value: The study offers an original contribution to the field by examining the specific assimilation trajectories of ex-terrorists, providing a nuanced understanding of the social reintegration process and identifying key factors that influence successful reintegration.


Adnan, M., & Amaliyah, A. (2021). Radicalism Vs Extremism: The Dilemma Of Islam And Politics In Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial, 20, 24–48.

Ambrozik, C. (2019). Why Terrorists Quit: The Disengagement of Indonesian Jihadists. Terrorism and Political Violence, 31(6), 1371–1372.

Anindya, C. R. (2018). Reintegrating Former Terrorist Inmates: Role of Local Government. In RSIS Commentary. RSIS.

Archetti, C. (2015). Terrorism, Communication and New Media: Explaining Radicalization in the Digital Age.

Asongu, S. A., Orim, S. M. I., & Nting, R. T. (2019). Terrorism and Social Media: Global Evidence. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 22(3), 208–228.

Bertram, L. (2016). Terrorism, the Internet and the Social Media Advantage: Exploring how terrorist organizations exploit aspects of the internet, social media and how these same platforms could be used to counter-violent extremism. Journal for Deradicalization, 7(c), 2–6.

Chalmers, I. (2017). Countering Violent Extremism in Indonesia: Bringing Back the Jihadists. Asian Studies Review, 41(3), 331–351.

Crelinsten, R. D. (2022). Analysing Terrorism and Counter-terrorism: A Communication Model. Terrorism and Political Violence, 14(2), 77–122.

Creswell, Jhon. W. (2014). Research Design_ Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches-SAGE Publications (2013).pdf (p. 285).

Denzin, K. N., & Lincoln, S. Y. (2005). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd Edition). Qualitative Research, 9(3), 388–389.

Denzin, N. K. (2006). The New Paradigm Dialogs and Qualitative Inquiry. 1, 12–13.

Feddes, A. R., & Gallucci, M. (2016). A Literature Review on Methodology used in Evaluating Effects of Preventive and De-radicalisation Interventions. Journal For Deradicalization, 16(5), 1–41.

Fikriyati, U. N. (2018). Perempuan dan Deradikalisasi: Peran Para Istri Mantan Terpidana Terorisme dalam Proses Deradikalisasi. Jurnal Sosiologi Reflektif, 12(1), 1–16.

Frazer, O., & Nünlist, C. (2015). The Concept of Countering Violent Extremism. CSS Analyses in Security Policy, 183(183), 1–4.

Gould, R. V. (2003). Why Do Networks Matter? Rationalist and Structuralist Interpretations. Social Movements and Networks: Relational Approaches to Collective Action.

Grossman, M., Hadfield, K., Jefferies, P., Gerrand, V., & Ungar, M. (2022). Youth Resilience to Violent Extremism: Development and Validation of the BRAVE Measure. Terrorism and Political Violence, 34(3), 468–488.

Guo, S., & An, J. (2022). Does terrorism make people pessimistic? Evidence from a natural experiment. Journal of Development Economics, 155, 102817.

Hardy, K. (2020). A Crime Prevention Framework for CVE. Terrorism and Political Violence , 34(3), 633–659.

Hwang, J. C. (2017). The disengagement of Indonesian Jihadists: Understanding the pathways. Terrorism and Political Violence, 29(2), 277–295.

John, H., & Braddock, K. (2010). Rehabilitating the Terrorists?: Challenges in Assessing the Effectiveness of De-radicalization Programs. Terrorism and Political Violence , 22(2), 267–291.

Kaplan, J., & Costa, C. P. (2015). The Islamic State and the new tribalism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 27(5), 926–969.

Kaplan, O., & Nussio, E. (2018). Community counts: The social reintegration of ex-combatants in Colombia. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 35(2), 132–153.

Maarif, A. S. (2018). ISLAM , HUMANITY AND Reflections on History. Leiden University Press.

Marsden, S. V. (2015). Conceptualising ‘success’ with those convicted of terrorism offences: Aims, methods, and barriers to reintegration. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 7(2), 143–165.

Maruna, S., Immarigeon, R., & Lebel, P. T. (2013). Ex-offender Reintegration: Theory and Practice. In S. Maruna & R. Immarigeon (Eds.), After Crime and Punishment: Pathways to Offender Reintegration (1st ed., pp. 1–24). Taylor and Francis.

Medina, M. S., Melchert, R. B., & Stowe, C. D. (2020). Fulfilling the tripartite mission during a pandemic. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1992). Qualitative data analysis : an expanded sourcebook.

Moghaddam, F. M. (2005). Psychological processes and “the staircase to terrorism.” American Psychologist, 60(9), 1039–1041.

Moghaddam, F. M. (2009). De-Radicalization and the Staircase from Terrorism. The Faces of Terrorism: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 277–292.

Musyafak, N., & Nisa, L. C. (2021). Dakwah Islam dan pencegahan radikalisme melalui ketahanan masyarakat. Jurnal Ilmu Dakwah, 41(1), 56–72.

Nova, A., & Syauqillah, M. (2021). IMPLEMENTASI RESOSIALISASI OLEH DENSUS 88 ANTI TEROR. Journal of Terrorism Studies, 3(1), 7.

Omelicheva, M. Y. (2007). Combating terrorism in Central Asia: Explaining differences in states’ responses to terror. Terrorism and Political Violence, 19(3), 369–393.

Özerdem, A. (2012). A re-conceptualisation of ex-combatant reintegration: ‘social reintegration’ approach. Conflict, Security & Development, 12(1), 51–73.

Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants. In Annalss (Vol. 530).

Rapik, M., Permatasari, B., Farah Anisya, A., Kunci, K., & Sitasi, C. (2020). Peran Forum Koordinasi Pencegahan Terorisme dalam Menjalankan Program Deradikalisasi. Journal of Political Issues, 1(2), 103–114.


Satriawan, I., Islami, M. N., & Lailam, T. (2019). Pencegahan Gerakan Radikalisme melalui Penanaman Ideologi Pancasila dan Budaya Sadar Konstitusi Berbasis Komunitas. Jurnal Surya Masyarakat, 1(2), 99–110.

Scaramella, K., & Viartasiwi, N. (2018). In dialogue with the Grassroots: Advocating for the Role of Women in Countering and Preventing Violent Extremism in Indonesia Editorial Team: In dialogue with the Grassroots: Advocating for the Role of Women in Countering and Preventing Violent Extremism in Indonesia. Resilience Development Initiative , 1(3).

Schuurman, B., & Schuurman, B. (2018). Research on Terrorism , 2007 – 2016 : A Review of Data , Methods , and Authorship Research on Terrorism , 2007 – 2016 : A Review of Data , Methods , and Authorship. Terrorism and Political Violence, 00(00), 1–16.

Shaffer, R. (2015). Counter-Terrorism Intelligence, Policy and Theory Since 9/11. Terrorism and Political Violence, 27(2), 368–375.

Shanaah, S., & Heath-Kelly, C. (2022). What Drives Counter-Extremism? The Extent of P/CVE Policies in the West and Their Structural Correlates. Terrorism and Political Violence.

Shinkfield, A. J., & Graffam, J. (2009). Community reintegration of ex-prisoners: Type and degree of change in variables influencing successful reintegration. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 53(1), 29–42.

Shoshani, A., & Slone, M. (2016). Through the looking glass: The role of ethnicity and affiliation in responses to terrorism in the media. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(DEC), 1–11.

Sikkens, E., Van San, M., Sieckelinck, S., De Winter, M., & History, A. (2017). Parental Influence on Radicalization and De-radicalization according to the Lived Experiences of Former Extremists and their Families. Journal for Deradicalization, 12, 192–226.

Siregar, G. T. (2023). The Juridical Analysis of the Death Penalty Implementation for Terrorist Crimes in The Indonesian Legal System. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 11(12), e1851.

Sumner, C. (2017, May). Building Peace After Terrorism: From Reconciled Relationship to Structural Change | Beyond Intractability. BeyondIntractability.Org.

Sumpter, C. (2017). Countering violent extremism in Indonesia: priorities, practice and the role of civil society. Journal for Deradicalization, 11, 112–147.

Sumpter, C. (2020). Realising Violent Extremist Risk Assessments in Indonesia: Simplify and Collaborate. Journal for Deradicalization, 22, 97–121.

Supriadi, E., Ajib, G., & Sugiarso, S. (2020). Intoleransi dan Radikalisme Agama: Konstruk LSM tentang Program Deradikalisasi. JSW (Jurnal Sosiologi Walisongo), 4(1), 53–72.

Suratman, Y. P. (2017). The effectiveness of de-radicalization program in Southeast Asia: does it work?; the case of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Journal of ASEAN Studies, 5(2), 135–156.

Tinnes, J. (2013). Literature on Terrorism and the Media (including the Internet): an Extensive Bibliography. In Perspectives on Terrorism (Vol. 7, Issue 1).

Torjesen, S. (2013). Towards a theory of ex-combatant reintegration. Stability, 2(3), 63.

Yulianto, R. (2020). IMPLEMENTASI BUDAYA MADRASAH DALAM MEMBANGUN SIKAP MODERASI BERAGAMA. EDUKASIA: Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pembelajaran, 1(1), 111–123.

Zhou, M. (2018). Segmented Assimilation: Issues, Controversies, and Recent Research on The New Second Generation. International Migration Review, 31(4), 0975–1008.




How to Cite

Adnan, M., Musyafak, N., Setiyono, B., & Amaliyah, A. (2024). NAVIGATING THE JOURNEY TO PEACE: A STUDY OF ASSIMILATION AND REINTEGRATION OF EX-OFFENDERS OF TERRORISM. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development, 12(6), e3691.