Dynamics of Workforce Diversity in Ethiopian Higher Education Institutions
Keywords:dynamics, Ethiopia, higher education, work force diversity
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to understand the dynamics of diversity in higher educational institutions in Ethiopia particularly the dynamics in terms of gender, marital status, age, religious and educational status. The study also emphasized on main diversity dimensions as: diversity climate, organizational justice, identity, values, schema and communication practices in higher educational institutions.
Theoretical Framework: This study which deals with the dynamics of diversity in higher educational institutions in Ethiopia is based on the taxonomy of work place diversity used by Tailer (2011).
Methods: The study is conducted using descriptive research design and mixed approach. The researchers describe the gender diversities and infer something based on the empirical evidences available. The Universities were selected using convenience sampling and self-administered questionnaires were distributed to respondents.
Results and Conclusion: Diversity is one of the buzzwords of our contemporary organizational realm as lack of diversity affects their performance in different perspective. Gender, marital status, age, religion and educational status were the diversity dimensions considered to see the dynamics of diversity. The analysis indicated that Ethiopian higher educational institutions are diversified in terms of the indicated variables and especially are advised to focus on gender and religion diversities. The diversity taxonomy result indicated the following: availability of inclusive climate, fair treatment of employees and hence, they perceive as they are part and parcel of their organization. Furthermore, employees are not subject to stereotyping at work and availability of a clear communication system in Ethiopian higher educational institutions.
Finding and Implication: Diversity can manifest in many ways and it is expressed as the differences in race, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, upbringing, and philosophical views are just a few ways in which people can be diverse. Hence, leaders of Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in Ethiopia thus need to create an environment where people with diverse attributes work together to achieve enhanced organizational performance.
Abbas Q, Hameed A, Waheed A. (2011) Gender Discrimination & Its Effect on Employee Performance/Productivity. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2011:1(15): 170-176.
Adamu, A.Y. (2013). Intergroup relations among ethnically diverse university students in Ethiopia. Journal of Education and Research, 3(2), 77-95.
Amir S., Faisal K., Muhammad, S., Maaz, U., & Abdul, B. (2019). The Effect of Workforce Diversity on Employee Performance in Higher Education Sector. Journal of Management Info, 6(3), 1-8.
Annija, Petrocelia, Tsvetelina (2011). Diversity Management in Higher Education Institutions: Key Motivators. Jon Köping International Business School Jönköping University. Bachelor Thesis in Business Administration.
Adamu A.Y. and Zellelew, B.T. (2007). Higher Education Institutions as pavilions of diversity: opportunities and challenges. The case of Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Higher Education, 4(1), 77-95.
Amdemichael Berhanu Kerga and Abdilgelil Asefa (2018). The effect of workforce diversity on employee performance: case of Ethio-Telecom South West Addis Ababa Zone. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, 8 (1): 1-27.
Bhushan, A. (2016). Gender discrimination at Work Place ant its impact on Employee’s Performance.
Birru Desta Kassaye (2019). The effect of workplace diversity and its workgroup performance on private higher education institutions in Ethiopia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 9 (3).
Boehm, S. A., & Kunze, F. (2015). Age diversity and age climate in the workplace Aging workers and the employee-employer relationship (pp. 33-55): Springer.
Cohen, S. G., & Bailey, D. E. (1997). What makes teams work: Group effectiveness research from the shop floor to the executive suite. Journal of management, 23(3), 239-290.
Deborah S. (2013) DO DIFFERENCES MAKE A DIFFERENCE? The Effects of Diversity on Learning, Intergroup Outcomes, and Civic Engagement.
Eagly, A. H. (2009). The his and hers of prosocial behavior: An examination of the social psychology of gender. The American Psychologist, 64(8), 644–658. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.64.8.644.
lsaid, A. M. (2012). The effects of cross-cultural work force diversity on employee performance in Egyptian pharmaceutical organizations. Business and Management Research, 1(4), 162.
Ferrary, M. (2018). Gender diversity in the labor market: Employer discrimination, educational choice and professional preferences. GRH, 2(27), 83–118.
Green K., López M., Wysocki A., Kepner K., Farnsworth D., Clark J. L. (2015). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. UF/IAFS Extension, University of Florida.
Joseph, R., & Selvaraj, P. (2015). The effects of work force diversity on employee performance in Singapore organizations. International Journal of Business Administration, 6(2), 17-29.
Kelali Alene Arefaine. (2018). Prospects and challenges of workforce diversity: the case of Medicines Sans Frontiers – Holland Ethiopia Mission. MSc Thesis Submitted to St. Mary’s University, School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Kulik, C. T., Pepper, M. B., Roberson, L., & Parker, S. K. (2007). The rich get richer: Predicting participation in voluntary diversity training. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 28(6), 753-769.
Kunze, F., Boehm, S., & Bruch, H. (2009). Age diversity, age discrimination, and performance consequences- a cross organizational study. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Proceedings.
Maalouf, N. J. A., Daouk, A., Elia, J., Ramadan, M., Sawaya, C., Baydoun, H., Zakhem, N. B. (2023). The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on the Performance of Employees in the Lebanese Banking Sector During Crisis. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development. Miami| v.11, n. 9| pages: 01-26| e01030 |2023.
Maingi, J. W. (2015). Effect Of workforce diversity on employee performance in Kenya: A case of Kenya School of Government. Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 2(2).
Mekonnen H. (2013). The impacts of ethnocentrism and stereotype on inter-cultural relations of Ethiopian higher education students. Online Journal of Communication and Media technologies. Vol.3, Issue 4, October 2013.
Moon, Kuk-Kyoung, Robert K. Christensen. (2019). Realizing the Performance Benefits of Workforce Diversity in the U.S. Federal Government: The Moderating Role of Diversity Climate, https://doi.org/10.1177/0091026019848458.
Ouellette, R.R., Frazier, S.L., Shernoff, E.S., Cappella, E., Mehta, T.G., Marinez-Lora, A, Grace Cua and Marc S. Atkins. (2018). Teacher job stress and satisfaction in urban schools: disentangling individual-, class-room-, and organizational-level influences. Bahav. Ther. 49, 494-508.doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.0110.
Park Sanghee and Jiaqi Liang. (2019). Merit, Diversity, and Performance: Does Diversity Management Moderate the Effect of Merit Principles on Governmental Performance? Public Personnel Management 49(3): DOI: 10.1177/0091026019848459.
Prasad, R.D. (2015). The impact of workforce diversity on organizational effectiveness: a study of selected Banks in Tigray region of Ethiopia. International Journal of Science and Research. ISSN (online): 2319-7064.
Post, C., & Byron, K. (2015). Women on boards and firm financial performance: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 58(5), 1546–1571. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2013.0319 .
Rizwan, M., Khan, M. N., Nadeem, B., & Abbas, Q. (2016). The impact of workforce diversity towards employee performance: Evidence from banking sector of Pakistan. American Journal of Marketing Research, 2(2), 53-60.
Singh, V., Terjesen, S., & Vinnicombe, S. (2008). Newly appointed directors in the boardroom: How do women and men differ? European Management Journal, 26(1), 48–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2007.10.002.
Tariku S. & Gara L. (2016). Place of diversity in the current Ethiopian education and training policy. Analysis of cardinal dimensions. Educational Research and Reviews. Vol. 11 (8).
Taylor, A. S. (2011). "Toward a Taxonomy of Diversity at Work: Developing and Validating the Workplace Diversity Inventory" (2011). Dissertations and Theses. Paper 158. https://doi.org/10.15760/etd.158
Wentling RM, Palma-Rivas N (2000). "Current status of diversity initiatives in selected multinational corporations", Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11 (1). pp.35-60.
Wood, W., & Eagly, A. H. (2009). Gender identity. In Mark R. Leary & Rick H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 109–125).
Yusuf, M., Bernardianto, R. B., Satia, H. M. R., Nurhasanah, N., Irwani, I., Setyoko, P. I., Saputra, A. S. (2023). Investigating the Role Transformational Leadership, Innovative Work Behavior, and Team Member Exchange on Public Service Organization Performance. Journal of Law and Sustainable Development. Miami| v.11, n. 6| pages: 01-21| e0868 |2023.
Zhou, G., Liu, L., & Song, Y. (2022). Inequality of opportunity and mass incidents: Evidence from China. Economics of Transition and Institutional Change, 30(3), 465– 488. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecot.12313.
Zhuwao, S. (2017). Workforce diversity and its effects on employee performance in Higher Education Institution in South Africa: a case study of University of Venda.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Mihretu Shanko Gidi, Kenenisa Lemi Debela, Chalchissa Amentie Kero
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms: the author(s) authorize(s) the publication of the text in the journal;
2. The author(s) ensure(s) that the contribution is original and unpublished and that it is not in the process of evaluation by another journal;
3. The journal is not responsible for the views, ideas and concepts presented in articles, and these are the sole responsibility of the author(s);
4. The publishers reserve the right to make textual adjustments and adapt texts to meet with publication standards.
5. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right to first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Atribuição NãoComercial 4.0 internacional, which allows the work to be shared with recognized authorship and initial publication in this journal.
6. Authors are allowed to assume additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (e.g. publish in institutional repository or as a book chapter), with recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.
7. Authors are allowed and are encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on a personal web page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as this can generate positive effects, as well as increase the impact and citations of the published work (see the effect of Free Access) at http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html
• 8. Authors are able to use ORCID is a system of identification for authors. An ORCID identifier is unique to an individual and acts as a persistent digital identifier to ensure that authors (particularly those with relatively common names) can be distinguished and their work properly attributed.