Variation of natural characteristics of Tanjero Basin in Sulaymaniyah Governorate using GIS
Keywords:river, basin, Tanjero, Sulaymaniyah, hydrology, Morphometri
Objective: The research aims to clarify the natural factors of the Tanjero River Basin. The Tanjero River Basin is located within the complex region in terms of topography in northeastern Iraq, eastern Iraqi Kurdistan region, and southwest of Sulaymaniyah Governorate. It is bordered on the eastern side by the Shahrazur Plain, the Sourin Mountains, and the Kweiza and Azmar Heights. On the western side, it is bordered by the Bernan mountain range, and on the northern side it is adjacent to the starting point of the Doula Rut Heights and Birah Mah Karun Mountain, and it is surrounded from the south by Darbandikhan Lake administratively.
Methodology: The current research relied on the descriptive and analytical approach in describing the phenomenon and analyzing it spatially, and the systematic approach in revealing the geographical factors causing the variation in water volume in the Tanjero River Basin and diagnosing the factors affecting it positively or negatively.
Results: By presenting the problem, reviewing the data, as well as linking it to the results, it becomes clear to us the clear influence of natural factors on the variation and diversity in the natural characteristics of the Tanjiro Basin in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, and this proves the validity of the study’s hypothesis.
Conclusion: The results show that the hydro-climatic budget in the Tanjiro Valley Basin is represented by the Khanaqin and Sulaymaniyah stations, which express the hydro-climatic characteristics in the Tanjiro Valley Basin, as the results of the water budget appear. According to table (1), the basin region is witnessing a water surplus because the effective amounts of rainfall exceed the amounts of evaporation and transpiration in the months “October, December, January, and February.” This surplus is within the Sulaymaniyah station, which represents the feeding area of the Tanjiro Basin. In the north, it was recorded the highest in January at (39.8) mm, while Khanaqin station witnesses a water deficit for all months and does not record any water surplus in its monthly characteristics, which represents the southern region of the basin’s extension range, and for this reason the water flow was described as the northern region in Sulaymaniyah is the recharge area and the southern area with a climate similar to Khanaqin station is the water drainage area of the basin.
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